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2019考研英语大纲解析之阅读逻辑

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学习路上 发表于 18-9-12 14:01:18 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
来源:文都教育
在2019考研英语大纲发布之后,同学们要充分利用2019考研英语大纲进行考研英语复习。考研英语大纲明确要求考生具备正确理解长难句的基础上,能够区分论点和论据的能力。如何在阅读中使用逻辑关系解题?看完本文大致就清楚了。
下面以2009年阅读中的一道题目为例,分析段落内上下文的关系,以及如何设置题目来考察此类阅读能力的。
①It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. ②Just as inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. ③By the mid-1980s Americans had found themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness. ④Some huge American industries, such as consumer electronics, had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition.⑤ By 1987 there was only one American television maker left, Zenith.⑥ (Nowthere is none: Zenith was bought by South Korea's LG Electronics in July). ⑦Foreign-made cars and textiles were sweeping into the domestic market America’s machine-tool industry was on the ropes. ⑧For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors,which America had which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty.
12. The loss of U.S. predominance in the world economy in the 1980s is manifested in the fact that the American_____。
[A]TV industry had withdrawn to its domestic market
[B]semiconductor industry had been taken over by foreign enterprises
[C]machine-tool industry had collapsed after suicidal actions
[D]auto industry had lost part of its domestic market
本段第①句为观点句,②③④句为观点的展开。第①句中,提示观点的核心词为primacy /narrowed。②③为同样的意思,只不过primacy/narrowed 被用另外的词替换掉了,②句中的替换词是retreat from predominance,③句中的替换词是fading industrial competitiveness。这这是在保持观点一致的前提下展开观点,但同时又有观点的补充,②句中在阐述了基本观点后,补充其后果可能是painful的,③句中补充到截止到上世纪90年代中期,这种后果表现为很多人at a loss。行文思路到这里是清晰的,一个是主 导地位丧失,一由此带来的影响(painful/at a loss)。根据下文④⑤⑥⑦⑧的内容,可以看出,作者是用论据证明主 导地位丧失的具体体现。 ④ 概括出一些行业或者shrunk 或者vanish。⑤⑥说的是电视制造业,用了一个时间上的对比By 1987与Now,说明电视制造业现在是none,即vanish,说明电视制造业消失。 ⑦说的是汽车和纺织业,这两个行业的现状是Foreign products sweeping into the domestic market /on the ropes,意为命悬一线,这两个行业已经shrunk。⑧介绍的是半导体行业,这个行业是next casualty,也表明是shrunk,而还没有vanish。从上面分析可以看出,该段的清晰的逻辑关系,或者论据与论点都分别是什么。
结合题目分析:A 选项中的withdrawn 与原文vanish 矛盾,为错误选项。B semiconductor 行业被取代与原文说的will be next casualty 不符;C machine-tool 行业垮掉(collapse)与原文中on the ropes 不符 D汽车行业lost part of domestic market 与原文Foreign products sweeping into the domestic market 意思一致,为正确选项。
可以看出在理清了段落中上下为的逻辑关系,做题目就会找到非常准确的依据,也能更好地运用一些做题技巧。

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